# LTSE 2024

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Is the student eligible to receive ZAKAT money for education ## LTSE 2024 Syllabus

LTSE 2024 will be based on NCERT Class IX and Term – 1 of Class X. Please use the following as a guide to prepare for LTSE 2024.

## Mathematics

### Class IX

1. Number System – rational number, irrational numbers, real numbers and their decimal expansions, representing real numbers on number line, operations on real numbers, laws of exponent for real numbers.
2. Polynomials – polynomials in one variable, zeros of a polynomial, remainder theorem, factorisation of polynomials, algebraic identities.
3. Coordinate Geometry – Cartesian system, plotting a point in the plane if its coordinates are given.
4. Linear Equation in Two Variables – linear equations, solution of a linear equation, graph of a linear equation in two variables, equation of lines parallel to x-axis and y-axis
5. Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry – Euclid’s definitions, axioms and postulates, equivalent versions of Euclid’s fifth postulate
6. Lines and Angles – basic terms and definitions, intersecting lines and non-intersecting lines, pairs of angles, parallel lines and a transversal, lines parallel to the same line, angle sum property of a triangle
7. Triangles – congruence of triangles, criteria for congruence of triangles, some properties of a triangle, inequalities in a triangle
8. Quadrilaterals – angle sum property of a quadrilateral, types of quadrilateral, properties of a parallelogram, condition for a quadrilateral to be a parallelogram, the mid-point theorem
9. Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles – figures on the same base and between the same parallels, parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels, triangles on the same base and between the same parallels
10. Circles – circles and its related terms, angle subtended by a chord at a point, perpendicular from the centre to a chord, circle through three points, equal chords and their distances from the centre, angle subtended by an arc of a circle, cyclic quadrilaterals
11. Heron’s Formula – area of a triangle by Heron’s formula, application of Heron’s formula in finding area of quadrilaterals
12. Surface Areas and Volumes – surface area of a cuboid, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone and sphere, volume of a cuboid, cylinder, right circular cone and sphere
13. Statistics – collection of data, presentation of data, graphical representation of data, measures of central tendency
14. Probability – experimental approach to probability

### Class X

1. Real Numbers – Euclid’s division lemma, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, revisiting irrational numbers, revisiting rational numbers and their decimal expansions
2. Polynomials – Geometrical meaning of the zeroes of a polynomial, relationship between zeroes of a polynomial and coefficients of a polynomial, division algorithm for polynomials
3. Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables – graphical method of solution of a pair of linear equations, algebraic methods of solving a pair of linear equations, equations reducible to pair of linear equations in two variables
4. Quadratic Equations – What are quadratic equations, Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation, Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square, Nature of Roots
5. Triangles – similar figures, similarity of triangles, criteria for similarity of triangles, areas of similar triangles, Pythagoras theorem
6. Coordinate Geometry – distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle
7. Introduction to Trigonometry – trigonometric ratios, trigonometric ratios of some specific angles, trigonometric identities trigonometric ratios of complementary angles
8. Circles – tangent to a circle, number of tangents from a point on a circle
9. Areas Related to Circles – perimeter and area of a circle, areas of sector and segment of a circle, areas of combinations of plane figures
10. Surface Areas and Volumes – surface area of a cuboid, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone and sphere, volume of a cuboid, cylinder, right circular cone and sphere
11. Probability and Statistics – Theoretical approach to probability including experiment outcomes, complementary and impossible events, Calculation of empirical probability.

## Physics

### Class X

1. Light

Laws of reflection, multiple images, reflection at plane surfaces, reflection at spherical mirrors, mirror formula and magnification, refraction at plane surfaces, Snell’s law, refraction and image formation by spherical lenses, ray diagrams, lens formula and magnification, power of a lens

1. The Human Eye and the Colorful World
Power of accommodation, Defects of vision and their correction, Refraction of light through a Prism, Dispersion of white light by a glass prism, Atmospheric Refraction, Scattering of light
2. Electricity – Electric Current And Circuit, Electric Potential And Potential Difference, Circuit Diagram, Ohm’s Law, Factors On Which The Resistance Of A Conductor Depends, Resistance Of A System Of Resistors (Series And Parallel Resistors), Heating Effect Of Electric Current, Electric Power.

### Class IX

1. Motion

Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

1. Force and Newton’s laws

Push or a pull, contact force, friction, rolling friction, sliding friction, static friction, fluid friction, non-contact force, electrostatic force, gravitational force, magnetic force, pressure, atmospheric pressure. force and motion, Newton’s laws of motion, action and reaction forces, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum.

1. Gravitation

Universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.

1. Floatation

Thrust and pressure. Archimedes’ principle; buoyancy; elementary idea of relative density.

1. Work, energy and power

Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy; law of conservation of energy.

1. Sound

Production of sound, oscillation, pitch, time period, amplitude, frequency, loudness, audible and inaudible sounds, medium of propagation nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; the reflection of sound; echo and sonar structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only)

Chemistry

All of the syllabus from class 9 is present. For class 10, only the syllabus mentioned below is what will be asked in the exam.

### Class X

1. Chemical reactions:

Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.

1. Acids, bases and salts:

Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.

1. Metals and nonmetals:
Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds.
2. Carbon and its Compounds –
Bonding In Carbon – The Covalent Bond, Versatile Nature Of Carbon, Saturated And Unsaturated Carbon Compounds, Chains, Branches And Rings, Homologous Series,  Nomenclature Of Carbon Compounds, Chemical Properties Of Carbon Compounds (Including Combustion, Addition Reaction, Substitution Reaction, Some Important Carbon Compounds – Ethanol And Ethanoic Acid And Their Properties)

### Class IX

1. Matter in Our Surroundings
Evaporation, Matter–An Introduction, States of Matter and Their Interconversion
2. Is Matter Around Us Pure
Centrifugation and Chromatography, Elements and Compounds, Mixtures, Physical and Chemical Changes, Separation of Mixtures.
3. Atoms and Molecules
Atoms, Chemical Formulae, Laws of Chemical Combination, Mole Concept, Molecules
4. Structure of the Atom
Atomic Models, Charged Particles of an Atom, Isotopes and Isobars

Reference books: NCERT Class 9th and class 10th

## Biology

### Class IX

1. The Fundamental Unit of Life
What are living organisms made up of, structural organisation of a cell
2. Tissues
Plant tissues, animal tissues
3. Diversity in Living Organisms
Basis of classification, classification and evolution, plantae, animalia, nomenclature
4. Why Do We Fall ILL
Diseases and its causes, infectious diseases
5. Natural Resources
The Breath of Life: Air, Water: A Wonder Liquid, Mineral Riches in the Soil, Biogeochemical Cycles, Ozone Layer
6. Improvement in Food Resources
Improvement in crop yields, animal husbandry

### Class X

1. Life Processes
What are life processes, nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion.
2. Control and Coordination
Animals – Nervous System, Reflex Actions, Human Brain, Nervous Tissues (Protection And Action), Coordination In Plants, Immediate Response To Stimulus, Movement Due To Growth, Hormones In Animals.
3. How do organisms reproduce
Do Organisms Create Exact Copies Of Themselves?, The Importance Of Variation, Modes Of Reproduction Used By Single Organisms, Fission, Fragmentation, Regeneration, Budding, Vegetative Propagation, Spore Formation, Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants And Human Beings.

## Logical Reasoning

Questions will be based on simple Aptitude, Analytical Skills and Logical puzzles, such as those based on Timer, Compass, Relationships, Set Theory, Alphabet and Number Test, Ranking, Arrangements, Missing Characters/images, etc

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